Quality and validation
Apros is used in industries and applications where quality requirements are exceptionally high. Apros was originally developed for demanding use in safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants. Version management, documentation and code verification and validation are primary focus areas in code development.
The developers of Apros, VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy, both have ISO9001 certified quality systems.
Validation and verification of Apros calculation
The performance of the Apros code has been validated extensively (more than 70 cases) by modelling different test facilities and comparing calculation results to a large set of measurements from selected transients. The thermal hydraulic models have been validated against a set of separate effect tests and integral tests (integral tests mean e.g. test facility experiments, such as ISPs – International Standard Problems). The thermal hydraulic and reactor models together with the automation system have been thoroughly tested by comparing calculation results with real plant data.
See the list of all validation cases:
Apros Validation – Selected validation cases related to nuclear safety analysed and training simulators. 14 pages.
With every major version release a big number of cases are calculated to ensure that all the models calculate flawlessly:
Validation cases used regularly at each Apros version change
|Separate effects tests||Power plant models|
Battelle top blow-down experiment
ERSEC reflooding test
Marviken critical flow tests
Liquid blow-down to containment
Blow-down experiment MX-II at Marviken containment facility
Spray experiment (ISP-35) at NUPEC containment facility
Steam condensation experiment (ISP-47) at Mistra containment facility
Water level rise transient in Pactel Pressurizer
|LOVIISA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
VVER-440 NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
OLKILUOTO 1 NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
FORSMARK 3 NUCLEAR POWER PLANT (HAMBO-model)
LOVIISA ICE CONDENSER CONTAINMENT
CCGT POWER PLANT MODEL WITH DISTRICT HEATING CIRCUIT